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2012. . 96-99.

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GRAVIMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION

OF PARTICULATE MATTER MASS EMISSION IN EXHAUST GAS

FLOW OF DIESEL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

Key words: ecological safety, particulate matter, internal combustion engines, agriculture vehicles, measurement instruments Requirements for ecological indicators of the vehicle piston internal combustion engine (PICE) fixed legislatively [1 3]. Among the legally normed pollutants in exhaust gases (EG) of diesel PICE (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons of motor fuel and oil (CnHm), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM)), second place after NOx according to reduced toxicity occupy PM [3, 4]. So, existing UNECE Regulation 49 and 96 [1, 2] contain the maximum level of average operating mass emissions of PM with the diesel PICE EG flow, the method and requirements for measuring equipment for its experimental determination, the list and parameters of diesel engine operating conditions at steady test cycle [1, 2].

The levels of these requirements and the dynamics of their alterations from the review [3] reflects the Fig. 1 in [3]. PM is dispersed phase of EG aerosol in which in according with definition from the [1, 2] include all substances which deposited on special Teflon filter, through which passes the EG probe, diluted with clean air in certain ratio, at temperature is not above 52 and are not water.

Main manners for PM mass emission determination in EG flow as well as some other EG aerosol characteristics and also PM by itself, by used methods is expedient to divide into the followings [3, 4]: 1) optical; 2) gravimetric; 3) experimentally-estimated; 4) estimated.

Operational principle of such measurement instruments as Dilution tunnels is grounded on gravimetric methods [3, 4]. They operational principle is to search the difference between weight of clean Teflon filters and same specifically prepared filters (stabilized dried at certain temperature and during certain period of time) through which passed specifically prepared EG sample (cooled and diluted once or twice in a certain ratio by clean atmospheric air to simulate the PM scattering process in the atmosphere), which taking through isokinetic sampler from particular location of EG flow in diesel exhaust system or imitating it dilution tunnel.

From the value of part of the exhaust gas flow into the dilution tunnel such measurement instruments are divided into: a) full-flow (whole diesel engine EG flow) dilution tunnels; b) partially-flow (some representative of diesel engine EG flow) dilution tunnels. Partially-flow dilution tunnels are divided into (overall dimensions of the tunnels differs in three times): a) mini dilution tunnels; b) micro dilution tunnels.

Principal schemes of internal structure and samples taking in mini and micro dilution tunnels, developed by domestic scientists, is shown in Fig. 1 [5]. External view of Teflon filters, which were used in study [6] of PM mass emission with EG flow of autotractor diesel SMD-23, stabilized and weighted is shown in Fig. 2.

   

World leader in designing and manufacturing of full- and partiallyflow dilution tunnels is Austrian company AVL [5, 7].

Fig. 2. External view of stabilized and weighted Teflon filters, which used in study of PM mass emission with diesel EG flow [6] (in the original language) But cost of its products is about hundred thousands US dollars (for partially-flow models) an up to about million US dollars (for full-flow models).

External view of partially-flow dilution tunnel, which manufactured by AVL company and its filterholder (allonge) [7] is shown in Fig. 4 in [7].

Thus, in these thesis vas reviewed such measuring instruments for experimental determination of PM mass emission with diesel PICE EG flow as dilution tunnels, both of foreign and of domestic manufacturing.

References

1. Regulation 49. Revision 5. Uniform provision concerning the approval of compression ignition (C.I.) and natural gas (NG) engines as well as positive-ignition (P.I.) engines fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and vehicles equipped with C.I. and NG engines and P.I. engines fuelled with LPG, with regard to the emissions of pollutants by the engine.

United Nations Economic and Social Council Economics Commission for Europe Inland Transport Committee Working Party on the Construction of Vehicles. E/ECE/TRANS/505. 4 May 2011. 194 p.

2. Regulation 96. Uniform provision concerning the approval of compression ignition (C.I.) engines to be installed in agricultural and forestry tractors with the regard to the emissions of pollutants by the engine. Geneva, 1995. 109 p.

3. Vambol S.O., Strokov O.P., Vambol V.V., Kondratenko O.M. (2015), Modern methods for improving the ecological safety of power plants exploitation: monograph [Suchasni sposoby pidvyshchenna ekologichnoi bezpeky ekspluatacii energetychnykh ustanovok: Monografija] [Text], Kharkiv, Publ. Styl-Izdat, 212 p. [in Ukrainian].

4. Zvonov V.A., Kornilov G.S., Kozlov A.V., Simonova E.A. (2005), Otsenka i kontrol vybrosa dispersnyh chastits s otrabotavshimi gazami dizeley [Evaluation and control of emission of dispersed particles with diesel exhaust gas] [Text], Moscow, Publ. Prima-Press-M, 312 p. [in Russian].

5. Polyvjanchuk A.P. (2013), Science and practical foundations for improving the efficiency of determining of particulate matter emission from diesel exhaust gases: thesis Dr.Sci.(Tech.), 05.05.03 engines and power

plants [Naukovo-praktychni osnovy pidvyshchennya efektyvnosti vyznachennya vykydiv tverdykh chastynok z vidpratsovanymy hazamy dyzelya:

dys.... d-ra tekhn. nauk: 05.05.03 dvyhuny ta enerhetychni ustanovky] [Text], Lugansk, Dahl East-Ukrainian National University, 311 p. [in Russian].

6. Kholkina E.A. (2015), Experimental study of model sample of microtunnel MKT-2 on motor test bench autotractor engine [Eksperimentalnye issledovanija maketnogo obraztsa mikrotunelja MKT-2 na motornom stende avtotraktornogo dvigatelja] [Text], Herald of Dahl East-Ukrainian National University, Severodonetsk, 3 (220), pp. 155 159. [in Russian].

7. AVL Smart Sampler. The Particulate Matter Sampling Solution. Partial flow dilution system for regulatory testing and R&D applications [Electronic resourse]. AVL List GmbH. Access mode:

https://www.avl.com/documents/10138/1225114/AVL+Smart+Sampler.pdf.

   

INSTRUMENTS FOR DETERMINATIN OF GASEOUS

POLLUTANTS CONCENTRATIONS IN ICE EXHAUST GASES

Key words: ecological safety, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, internal combustion engines, agriculture vehicles, measurement instruments.

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酅 175 Skrynnyk K.V., Ruban D.V., Kondratenko A.N.

Gravimetric methods for determination of particulate matter mass emission in exhaust gas flow of diesel internal combustion engines... 178 Zakrenychnaja D.Ju., Tsoy L.A., Kondratenko A.N.

Instruments for determinatin of gaseous pollutants concentrations in ice exhaust gases... 181 4

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